1 Richard T. Antoun, Understanding Fundamentalism: Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Movements (Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2001), 2.
2 For example, National Association of Evangelicals, World Evangelical Alliance, Evangelical Presbyterian Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.
3 “Defining Evangelicalism,” linked from Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals Home Page, http://isae.wheaton.edu/defining-evangelicalism/ (accessed February 27, 2011).
4 Nancy T. Ammerman, “Re-awakening a Sleeping Giant: Christian Fundamentalists in Late Twentieth-Century US Society,” in The Freedom to Do God’s Will: Religious Fundamentalism and Social Change, eds. Gerrie ter Haar and James J. Busuttil (London: Routledge, 2003), 96-97.
5 Antoun, Understanding Fundamentalism: Christian, Islamic, and Jewish Movements, 56.
6 “Evangelism,” Webster's New World College Dictionary, linked from YourDictionary, http://www.yourdictionary.com/evangelism (accessed 1/16/11).
7 Anne C. Loveland, American Evangelicals and the U.S. Military 1942-1993 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996), 5.
8 Ibid., 7.
9 Ibid., 72.
10 Ira C. Lupu and Robert W. Tuttle, “Instruments of Accommodation: The Military Chaplaincy and the Constitution”, West Virginia Law Review, (February 2008) 90-91.
11 Israel Drazin and Cecil B. Currey, For God and Country: The History of a Constitutional Challenge to the Army Chaplaincy (Hoboken, NJ: KTAV Publishing House, 1995), 45.
12 U.S. Constitution, amend. 1.
13 Drazin and Currey, For God and Country: The History of a Constitutional Challenge to the Army Chaplaincy, 43.
14 U.S. Department of the Army, Religious Support, 1-1.
15 Drazin and Currey, For God and Country: The History of a Constitutional Challenge to the Army Chaplaincy, 198.
28 Ibid., 115-116.
29 Pluralism, as defined by Merriam-Webster in their online dictionary, is “a state of society in which members of diverse ethnic, racial, religious, or social groups maintain an autonomous participation in and development of their traditional culture or special interest within the confines of a common civilization,” see “pluralism,” in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2008, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hacker (accessed February 27, 2011).
30 Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act of 1998 defines an inherently governmental function as “a function so intimately related to the public interest as to require performance by Federal Government employees,” see John R. Luckey and Kate M. Manuel, “Inherently Governmental Functions and Department of Defense Operations: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress,” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, no. 7-5700 (February 1, 2010): 7.
31 U.S. Department of Defense, Policy and Procedures for Determining Workforce Mix, Department of Defense Instruction 1100.22 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, April 12, 2010), 21.
32 Examples include Veitch v. England in which a chaplain who was relieved from duty for publicly denigrating other religions and refusing to work collegially with his peers claimed religions discrimination, and Goldman v. Weinberger, where the court ruled that the military, under certain circumstances, had the right to deny a soldier his or her request for religious accommodation. See Ira C. Lupu and Robert W. Tuttle, “Instruments of Accommodation: The Military Chaplaincy and the Constitution”, West Virginia Law Review, (February 2008) 100, 135.
33 Lupu and Tuttle, “Instruments of Accommodation: The Military Chaplaincy and the Constitution”, 90.
34 Ibid., 165.
35 Ibid., 123-124.
36 Ibid., 163.
37 Ibid., 165.
38 Loveland, American Evangelicals and the U.S. Military 1942-1993, 310-311.
39 Army field manual FM 16-1, which later was renamed as FM 1-05, states that “A chaplain‟s call, ministry, message, ecclesiastical authority, and responsibility come from the religious organization that the chaplain represents,” see U.S. Department of the Army, Religious Support, Army Field Manual 1-05 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Army, April 2003), 1-4.
40 National Conference on Ministry to the Armed Forces, The Covenant and The Code of Ethics for Chaplains of the Armed Forces, linked from National Conference on Ministry to the Armed Forces Home Page, http://www.ncmaf.org/ policies/codeofethics.htm (accessed JAN 27, 2011).
41 Religious tolerance and Inter-religious dialogue are two of the topics currently taught at the U.S. Army Chaplain School in their block of instruction on pluralism.
42 Loveland, American Evangelicals and the U.S. Military 1942-1993, 304.
43 Ibid., 314.
44 Ibid., 315.
45 Susanne Kappler, “Chaplain recalls path to making history,” June 12, 2009, linked from The United States Army Home Page, http://www.army.mil/-news/2009/06/12/22584-chaplain- recalls-path-to-making-history/ (accessed October 6, 2010).
46 This information is from a personal conversation between the author and a chaplain serving at Ft. Bragg in 1994.
47 Some conservative Christian groups have, in the past, called the Latter Day Saints (LDS) a “cult.” Recently, the Southern Baptist Convention removed the “cult” tag, but they still maintain it is not Christian, see David Van Biema, “What Is Mormonism? A Baptist Answer,” TIME, October 24, 2007, http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1675308,00.html, (accessed
January 29, 2011)
48 Wiccans of the Sacred Well Congregation, one of the larger organizations of Wiccan followers in the United States, describe its practice and followers in this way: “Wicca, as practiced today, is a reconstruction of ancient Pagan religions of Northern and Western Europe, with no reservations about drawing on source material of other times and other cultures. Modern Wicca or "Witchcraft" can be directly traced back to the writings of Margaret Murray, a cultural anthropologist,” see “History, Development, and Philosophy of Traditional Craft Wicca (TCW),” linked from Sacred Well Congregation Home Page, http://www.sacredwell.org/index.html (accessed February 26, 2011).
49 An “open circle” is a public meeting of Wiccan followers, open to persons of any belief system who wish to attend.
50 Charles S. Clifton, “Fort Hood‟s Wiccans and the Problem of Pacifism”, November 20, 2000, paper presented to the American Academy of Religion meeting, Nashville, Tennessee, http://www.chasclifton.com/papers/hood.html (accessed January 29, 2011)
51 Clifton, “Fort Hood‟s Wiccans and the Problem of Pacifism.”
52 Alan Cooperman, “A Wiccan Army Chaplain? The Brass Wouldn't Buy it,” The Washington Post, February 19, 2007, reprinted at http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/ nationworld/2003586870_wiccan24.html (accessed October 6, 2010).
53 Personal observations of the author, who was serving in Balad at the time.
54 “Women should be silent in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as the law also says. If there is anything they desire to know, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for a woman to speak in church.” I Cor. 14:34-35 (New Revised Standard Version).
55, “Let a woman learn in silence with full submission. I permit no woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she is to keep silent.” 1 Tim. 2:11-12 (NRSV).
56 Southern Baptist Convention, Resolution On Ordination And The Role Of Women In Ministry, June 1984, http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/amResolution.asp?ID=1088, (accessed January 29, 2011).
57 U.S. Army Chaplaincy, Strength Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Army Office of the Chief of Chaplains, December 31, 2010).
58 Conversation with a Chaplain-Basic Officer Leader Course Instructor from the United States Army Chaplain Center and School, December 2, 2010.
59 National Conference on Ministry to the Armed Forces, The Covenant and The Code of Ethics for Chaplains of the Armed Forces.
61 The content for the applicant statement was copied from a sample letter provided to the author on October 28, 2010 by Chaplain Karen Meeker, the Accessions Officer for the Department of the Army, Chief of Chaplains Office.
62 A copy of an actual shell for an applicant interview memo was provided to the author by Chaplain (Colonel) Charles D. Reese on March 1, 2011.
63 Paul Jaedicke, Chaplain Basic Officer Leader Course (CH-BOLC) Course Design Matrix / Syllabus (Ft. Jackson, SC: U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, October FY 2010).
64 Courses considered by the author to have relevance to ministry in a pluralistic environment include: worship traditions, ethics, religious support planning, supervision of Distinctive Faith Group Leaders (DFGLs), privileged communication, religious accommodation, and world religions and culture.
65 “Chaplains provide technical supervision to and serve in the rating chain of subordinate Chaplains and Chaplain Assistants,” see U.S. Department of the Army, Army Chaplain Corps Activities, Army Regulation 165-1 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Army, December 3, 2009), 11.
66 Ibid., 10.
67 U.S. Department of Defense, Guidance for the Appointment of Chaplains for the Military Departments, Department of Defense Instruction 1304.28 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, August 7, 2007), 1.
68 Ibid., 3.
69 The AFCB is the Department of Defense advisory board which makes recommendations to the Secretary of Defense on issues of religious, moral, and ethical matters related to the Military Services. Among its responsibilities are making policy recommendations regarding
“protection of the free exercise of religion according to Amendment I to the Constitution of the
United States” and ”procurement, professional standards, requirements, training, and assignment of military chaplains.” See U.S. Department of Defense, Armed Forces Chaplains Board, Department of Defense Instruction 5120.08 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense, August 20, 2007), 2.
70 Lane J. Creamer, Chaplain Captain Career Course (C4) Course Design Matrix (Ft. Jackson, SC: U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, November 1, 2010); Kenneth W. Bush, Brigade Functional Area Qualification Course (Major) Course Design Matrix (Ft. Jackson, SC:
U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School, April 15, 2010).
71 National Conference on Ministry to the Armed Forces, The Covenant and The Code of Ethics for Chaplains of the Armed Forces.
72 U.S. Department of Defense, Armed Forces Chaplains Board, DoDI 5120.08, 2.
73 Association for Clinical Pastoral Education, ACPE Standards & Manuals: 2010 Standards
(Decatur, GA: Association for Clinical Pastoral Education, Inc., 2010) 2.